Hypothyroidism In Children

hypothyroid infants

The condition occurs in about 1 in 3,000-4,000 children, is most often permanent and treatment is lifelong. This type of hypothyroidism occurs in about 1 in 1,700 to 3,500 live births. Because early treatment they said can prevent intellectual disability, all newborns receive a routine screening blood test Newborn Screening Tests Screening tests are done to detect health conditions that are not yet causing symptoms.

Because the body can require higher doses of synthetic hormone over time, the child should be retested periodically to make sure the right amount of hormone is given and the dose is adjusted as needed. Congenital hypothyroidism can occur if the mother did not have enough iodine in her diet while pregnant (iodine deficiency Iodine Deficiency Iodine deficiency, which is common worldwide, can lead to enlargement of the thyroid gland. (See also Overview of Minerals.) Iodine occurs in seawater. Read more ), because a woman’s body needs more iodine when she is pregnant. Iodine deficiency is rare in areas of the world where navigate to these guys iodine is added to table salt but is more common in areas where people do not get enough iodine in their diet. Central hypothyroidism is caused by structural problems that occur in the pituitary gland while it is developing (see Overview of the Pituitary Gland Overview of the Pituitary Gland The pituitary is a pea-sized gland that is housed within a bony structure (sella turcica) at the base of the brain. In contrast to the overall favorable outcome in infants with CH who are treated early, the neurodevelopmental prognosis is less certain in those in whom CH is not detected and, as a result, begin treatment late.

In any child whose NBS results suggest CH, the next steps are to perform a physical examination (for goiter, lingual thyroid gland, and/or physical signs of hypothyroidism) and to measure serum concentrations of TSH and FT4 (or total T4), optimally with use of a laboratory that has a 24-hour turn around. Measurement of other thyroid hormones (such as T3, free T3, or reverse T3) is rarely of clinical get the facts value in the evaluation of possible CH. The chief priority of NBS programs is the detection of infants with moderate or severe primary hypothyroidism, which results in intellectual disability if not detected. Secondary priorities include the detection of infants with mild primary hypothyroidism, primary hypothyroidism of delayed onset ( delayed TSH elevation ), or central hypothyroidism.

hypothyroid infants

After this time, thyroid hormone is important for growth as well as enabling the body to use energy and stay warm (metabolism) and to help the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs work as they should. If iodine deficiency occurs very early during pregnancy, infants may have severe growth failure, abnormal facial features, intellectual disability, and stiff muscles that are difficult to move and control (called spasticity). For confirmation of abnormal NBS results, measurement of FT4 is preferred over measurement of total T4.

Untreated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) leads to intellectual disabilities. Prompt diagnosis by newborn screening (NBS) leading to early and adequate treatment results in grossly normal neurocognitive outcomes in adulthood. However, NBS for hypothyroidism is not yet established in all countries globally.

Hypothyroidism can have several causes, including an autoimmune disorder (Hashimoto’s disease), in which the body’s immune system mistakenly destructs its own thyroid gland. In teens, this is perhaps the most common cause of underactive thyroid, compared to other causes of the condition. Other causes could be certain medications or pituitary hypothyroidism, in which the pituitary gland, which controls the thyroid gland. In children and adolescents with suspected hypothyroidism (elevated TSH and low T4/free T4), thyroid antibody titers (to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin) should be measured to evaluate for autoimmune thyroiditis.

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