Strength Training Builds More Than Muscles

improving muscular strength and endurance slows bone density loss.

Eight articles have concluded that there was a significant difference in the brisk walking group between the pre-test and post-test (21 24, 26, 27, 46, 48). Nevertheless, two articles showed no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test (18, 45). However, it is still not clear which exercise is the best suited and how long it would take to obtain an appropriate result. For example, the SIOMMS guidelines [13] recommend performing a minimum of physical activity, such as walking, for 30 minutes every day, despite the lack of available evidence. Savikangas and Suominen also suggest that, especially in older people who do not exercise regularly, increasing daily physical activity may also help maintain bone health and prevent fractures through improved functional capacity and muscle strength. Good functional capacity and muscle strength reduce the risk of falls but also allow the bones to be loaded more efficiently.

improving muscular strength and endurance slows bone density loss.

All participants participated in progressive muscle strength, endurance, balance, and flexibility training. Half of the subjects participated in a computer training program focused on information processing skills in addition to the exercise program. If young women exercise excessively, they can lose enough weight to cause hormonal changes that stop menstrual periods (amenorrhea). This loss of estrogen the hormone that is necessary for maintaining bone mass can cause bone loss at a time when young women should be adding to their peak bone mass. However, a female athlete who focuses on being thin may eat too little or exercise too much.

Although specific mechanisms via which exercise improves bone health are not fully elucidated yet, it is widely accepted that mechanical load induced by exercise training increases the muscle mass, produces mechanical stress in the skeleton, and enhances the osteoblast activity [12,13]. For exercise training to elicit an osteogenic effect, the mechanical load applied to bones should exceed that encountered during daily activities [14]. Weight-bearing the advantage impact exercise such as hopping and jumping, and/or progressive resistance exercise (RE), alone or in combination can improve the bone health in adults [11]. Among them, RE has been highlighted as the most promising intervention to maintain or increase bone mass and density [15]. This is because a variety of muscular loads are applied on the bone during RE, which generate stimuli and promote an osteogenic response of the bone [16].

However, in order to be effective, this activity has to last 12 months as minimum [21]. Although exercise has been shown to have clear bone-building effects in children and adolescents and bone-preserving visit the website effects in adults, it is just one element of a total program to prevent bone loss and decrease fracture risk. Weight-bearing exercise during the teen years is essential to reach maximum bone strength.

Exercise training, especially RE, is important for the maintenance of musculoskeletal health in an aging society. It also exerts a mechanical load on bones consequently leading to increase in the bone strength. Based on the available internet information, RE, either alone or in combination with other interventions, may be the most optimal strategy to improve the muscle and bone mass in postmenopausal women, middle-aged men, or even the older population.

Moreover, although BMD may explain 60 70% of total bone strength [103], bone architecture [104] and matrix components [105] are also crucial for bone strength and may better predict fracture risk [106]. An increase in the representation of male participants in future research is also warranted. Among older adults, life satisfaction correlates with health, mortality and successful aging especially with advancing years (67). Previous work reported that physical activity was significantly related to life satisfaction and happiness in older adults (68). Similarly, life satisfaction was improved in brisk walking intervention after 6 months (25). However, the evidence for a linkage of physical activity levels to life satisfaction or is not always positive (Evidence Category C) (69).

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